In addition to the construction of the existing NAFTA, merged with elements of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the new USMCA, which has just been adopted by the U.S. Congress, also includes elements of the « Beyond the Border » agreement signed by Prime Minister Stephen Harper and former President Barack Obama, including the « Single Window » initiative and the consolidation of the Regulatory Cooperation Council in Chapter 28 of the new agreement.  During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or eliminate NAFTA if the renegotiations fail.  After the election, Trump made a series of changes that influenced trade relations with other countries. The exit from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significantly larger increase in tariffs with China were some of the steps he took, which reinforced the fact that he was serious about changing NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and errors of the USMCA resembles the debate on all free trade agreements (FTAs), such as the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty and the role of commercial, labour, environmental and consumer interests in the development of the language of trade agreements. The pact is far from a definite success. It also ends amid growing trade tensions with Canada and widespread concern about Mexico`s ability to impose occupational health and safety. In addition, all the economic benefits and job gains are still years away. The provisions of the Convention cover a wide range of agricultural products, homelessness, industrial products, working conditions and digital commerce.
Among the most important aspects of the agreement are improving U.S. dairy farmers` access to the Canadian market, guidelines for a greater proportion of automobiles produced in the three countries and not imported from other countries, and maintaining the dispute settlement system, which is similar to that contained in NAFTA.   « We have always fully complied with all of our commitments under our [free trade agreements], including the United States, and that will not change, » Canadian Ambassador to the United States Kirsten Hillman told POLITICO. The United States, Mexico and Canada have accepted non-discrimination and transparency obligations in sales and distribution, as well as labelling and certification provisions, to avoid technical barriers to trade in distilled wine and spirits. They agreed to continue to recognize bourbon whiskey, tennessee whiskey, tequila, mezcal and Canadian whiskey as distinctive products. NAFTA has boosted Mexican agricultural exports to the United States, which have tripled since the pact was implemented. Hundreds of thousands of jobs in the automotive industry have also been created in the country and most studies [PDF] have found that the agreement has increased productivity and reduced consumer prices in Mexico. The full text of the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada is available here. During the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump promised to renegotiate NAFTA, calling it « the worst trade deal ever. » As president, he did.
The result is the USMCA, which signed Trump in January and was part of his achievements in his State of the Union address. In addition to the original NAFTA provisions, the USMCA borrows significant credits under the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreements and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its willingness to implement the agreement and joined Canada.  The agreement came into force on July 1, 2020.    The agreement is the result of a renegotiation between member states of the North American Free Trade Agreement between 2017 and 2018, which formally approved the terms of the new agreement on 30 September 2018 and 1 October.  The USMCA was proposed by US President Donald Trump